In Writer's Clinic #6: Connecting Sentences Part 1 , we saw that problems occur when Koreans use as sentence conjunctions certain words which are not used that way by native speakers of English. By way of review, please correct these problem sentences:
a) xxx- I'm not a professional musician. Just I play piano as a hobby.
b) xxx- I'm completely unfamiliar with that writer. Even I don't know what country he was born in.
c) xxx- Many kinds of devices use semiconductors. Only I'll describe the most common ones.
If you recall the explanation in last month's column, you should be able to correct those problem sentences as:
a' ok- I'm not a professional musician. I just play piano as a hobby.
b' ok- I'm completely unfamiliar with that writer. I don't even know what 1 country he was born in.
c' ok- Many kinds of devices use semiconductors. I'll only describe the most common ones.
All of those are examples of words being incorrectly used as sentence conjunctions. There is another word which Koreans, but not native speakers, commonly use as a sentence conjunction, and here the problem is lexical as well as grammatical. That word is 'especially'. Consider this example:
1) xxx- This article is a comparative study of peasant rebellions. Especially, it compares the Jacquerie uprising in 14th-century France with the Tonghak rebellion in 19th-century Korea.
Here's how The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language defines 'especially': "to an extent or degree deserving of special emphasis". In other words, 'especially' is an adverb used to emphasize or intensify the meaning of some verb or adjective. Consider these examples:
d) You always look beautiful, but you look especially beautiful when you wear that black, high-necked sweater.
e) Visiting new places is exciting, and it's especially exciting to visit foreign countries.
f) I like to visit new places, and I especially like to visit foreign countries.
As you can see in these examples, 'especially' gives special emphasis to some adjective ('beautiful', 'exciting') or verb ('like'); it serves as an intensifier. Thus, in the first example, 'especially beautiful' is more intense than 'beautiful', and the contrast serves to emphasize that the woman's beauty is 'of a higher degree' when she wears a certain sweater. In the second example, 'especially exciting' is more intense than 'exciting', indicating that visiting foreign countries offers excitement 'of a higher degree' than simply visiting places one hasn't seen before. In the last example, 'to especially like' something is to like it 'to a higher degree', or with more intensity, than simply 'to like' something. We could also say:
g) I like to visit new places, especially foreign countries.
Here again, 'especially' functions as an intensifier; it provides emphasis for the verb, 'to like', even though the verb is only implicit. The point is that we use 'especially' to intensify some other word or phrase in a sentence: the function of 'especially' is to provide emphasis.
But look again at problem example #1. Does 'especially' function as an intensifier? Is there a difference in intensity between 'compare' in the first sentence and 'especially compare' in the second? Not at all. Rather, the second sentence gives more specific information than the first. The first sentence informs us that the general topic of the article is a comparative study of peasant rebellions, and the second sentence tells us more specifically which particular rebellions the article compares. As you can see, the second sentence provides some specification of the information in the first; it does not intensify. The point is that the proper use of 'especially' is to intensify or emphasize, not to specify. This lexical misunderstanding is the root of many Konglish problems involving 'especialy'.
The adverb, 'specifically', can be used as a sentence conjunction and does perfrom the fruction of sepcification. Thus, and easy way to correct #1 would be:
1aok- This article is a comparative study of peasant rebellions. Specifically, it compares the Jacquerie uprising in 14th-century France with the Tonghak rebellion in 19th-century Korea.
The important point is to avoid using 'especially' to specify; only use it to intensify. As 1a illustrates, we can use 'specifically' as a sentence conjunction to specify. In fact, native speakers of English do not use 'specifically' as a sentence conjunction very frequently. There are other ways of specifying without creating a new sentence. For example:
1bok- This article is a comparative study of peasant rebellions, focusing on the Jacquerie uprising in 14th-century France and the Tonghak rebellion in 19th-century Korea.
Here, the participial phrase, 'focusing on' is used for specification. This is more natural and smooth than creating a separate sentence for specification and introducing it with a sentence conjunction. We also use certain adverbs, such as 'chiefly', 'primarily', 'principally', and 'specifically' in the same way. See if you can apply this principle in correcting this problem sentence:
2) xxx- Our company produces electronic goods. Especially we make computers and audio equipment.
In fact, in the English written in the 19th century and before, 'especially' used to be used to specify, as well as to intensify. However, in modern usage, it is only used to intensify.
Clearly the second sentence provides specification, not intensification, so 'especially' is being used incorrectly. It would, of course, be possible to correct it using 'specifically' as a sentence conjunction, following the pattern of 1a. But here is how I would write that sentence:
2aok- Our company produces electronic goods, primarily [chiefly, principally] computers and audio equipment.
So, three things to remember: 1) Do not use 'especially' as a sentence conjunction; 2) Use 'especially' to intensify, not to specify ['Specifically' can be used to specify, and can function as a sentence conjunction,]; 3) In general, it is not necessary to create a separate sentence for specification. It is often more smooth and natural to combine the general and the specific statements in the same sentence, using participial phrases (as in 1b) or adverbs (as in 2a) to indicate specification.
Finally, it should be pointed out that in most cases it is really not necessary to use any special words at all to indicate specification. In written English, if there are two statements, the first giving general information and the second providing specification, the reader is able to perceive the relationship without any special words like 'specifically', 'in particular' etc. For example, consider this problem sentence:
3) xxx- Our bank is expanding its overseas operations. Especially, we are opening branches in Hong Kong, Paris, and New York.
Clearly #3 is incorrect. 'Especially' is being used as a sentence conjunction and it is providing specification, not intensification. But rather than using some other word to indicate specification, I would simply rewrite #3 as:
3a) ok- Our bank is expanding its overseas operations. We are opening branches in Hong Kong, Paris, and New York.
3b) ok- Our bank is expanding its overseas operations, opening branches in Hong Kong, Paris, and New York.
The point is that the specification relationship is quite clear to the reader. In most cases it is not necessary to signal it with any special words.
Here is an example of another typical problem that occurs when Koreans connect sentences in English. This example comes from an English-language newspaper published in Seoul:
4) xxx- The government bans the sale of mineral water to Koreans, citing the probable loss to tap water facilities. At the same time, it is feared that selling to Koreans might cause class antagonism between people drinking mineral water and others dependent upon piped water.
In this example, there are two sentences connected with the phrase, 'at the same time'. What is the relation between the ideas expressed in those two sentences? The first sentence gives one reason why the Korean government does not want to allow Koreans to buy mineral water: loss of revenue. The second sentence gives another reason: possible class antagonism. So, the second sentence gives additional information of the same sort that is given in the first sentence. But it is incorrect to use 'at the same time' to introduce additional, supporting information.
Here is how The Random House Dictionary of the English Language defines the expression, 'at the same time': "nevertheless; yet". And here is the example sentence they offer: "I'd like to try it, but at the same time I'm a little afraid." In other words, the expression, 'at the same time', is used to show contrast. But many Koreans writing in English, including the newspaper reporters who wrote #4, fail to realize that 'at the same time' is meant to show contrast. Instead they use it to introduce additional, supporting information. But for that function, we use such expressions as 'in addition', 'moreover' and 'furthermore', or we simple use the sentence conjunction, 'and'. Thus, #4 should be corrected as:
4a) ok- The government bans the sale of mineral water to Koreans, citing the probable loss to tap water facilities. In addition, [furthermore, moreover]. It is feared that selling to Koreans might cause class antagonism between peeople drinking mineral water and others dependent upon piped water.
Here is another example of a very similar problem involving an expression used to connect two sentences. It is taken from the same newspaper as the previous example.
5) xxx- Hyundai Department Store is expected to record some 5 billion won in sales of imported products this year. On the other hand, Midopa Department Store expects its sales of imported products to amount to 3.5 billion won this year.
Here, the phrase, 'on the other hand' is being used to
connect two sentences. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language defines 'on the other hand' as: "as another, or opposite, point of view." The Random House Dictionary of the English Language's definition is: "from another side or aspect; conversely," and the sample sentence given is: "It was an unfortunate experience, but, on the other hand, one can learn from one's mistakes." As these definitions and the example show, the expression, 'on the other hand', is used to indicate contrasting, in some sense opposing viewpoints. But Koreans writing in English often fail to realize that 'on the other hand' has this element of opposition or contrast. Clearly no such opposition exists between the ideas expressed in the two sentences in #5.
The second idea is in no way the converse of the first; they are in no sense opposed. Rather, they point to the exact same conclusion. Here's how I would rewrite #5:
5a) ok- Hyundai Department Store is expected to record some 5 billion won in sales of imported products this year, and Midopa Department Store expects its sales of imported goods to amount to 3.5 billion won.
Of course 'at the same time' can also be used in an entirely literal, Ionidiomatic way to express simultaneous actions: "It is difficult to talk and eat at the same time."
5b ok- Hyundai Department Store is expected to record some 5 billion won in sales of imported products this year, while Midopa Department Store expects its sales of imported goods to amount to 3.5 billion won.
Since the two sentences in #5 present similar, rather than contrasting information, it is reasonable to combine them with the conjunction, 'and', as in 5a. The conjunction, 'while', is particularly flexible. Sometimes it is used to show some sort of opposition, and has a meaning like 'although' or 'even though', but it can also be used to conjoin descriptions of analogous or corresponding situations, as in 5b.
편집자의 보충 해설
'especially''와 'specially'는 우리말로는 다 같이 '특별히'로 번역되고 있으며 드물게는 같은 뜻으로서 서로 바꾸어 쓰기도 한다:
It was not (e)specially cold. [그다지 춥지는 않았다.]
그러나 대부분의 경우에는 다음 예문에서 보는 바와 같이 그 뜻과 용법이 다르다:
1. Especially는 'above all'*이라는 뜻으로 쓰인다:
- I play a lot of tennis, especially on Sundays.
[테니스라면 언제나 좋아하지만, 일요일에 하는 테니스는 그 중에서도 가장 좋아한다]
- It rains a lot, especially in the North.
[어디에서나 비가 많이 오지만, 북쪽에서는 유난히 비가
- The children are very noisy, especially when we have visitors.
[어린이들은 평상시에도 아주 시끄럽지만, 손님이 오면 유별나게도 요란하게 떠든다.]
- I like all kinds of fruit, especially apples.
[나는 과일은 다 좋아하지만, 그 중에서도 사과를 제일 좋아한다.]
2. Especially는 주어 뒤에 오지 문장의 맨 앞에 오지 않는다:
- All my family like music. My father, especially, goes to as many concerts as he can.
(NOT … Especially my father goes …) [우리 가족은 모두 음악을 좋아한다. 그 중에서 우리 아버지는 유난히 음악을 좋아해서 갈수 있는 음악회에는 빠짐없이 간다.]
3. Specially는 '특별한 목적으로'라는 뜻으로 쓰인다:
- These shoes were specially made for me. [이 구두는 내가 신기 위해서 만든 것이다. 기성품(ready-made)이 아니고 주문품(tailor-made)이라는 뜻이다.
4. 형용사로 쓰이는 'especial'이란 단어는 별로 쓰이지 않으며, '특별한'이라는 뜻으로는 'special'이란 형용사를 쓴다:
- He took special trouble over his work. [그는 그의 작업 수행에 특별한 수고를 했다.]
출처: Michael Swan, Practical English Usage. [이 책은 www.fll.co.kr 의 인터넷 서점에 있다.]
*above all used to indicate the most important thing or the main point of a statement
[언급한 것들 중에서, 특정한 것을 꼬집어, 유난히, 각별히 …하다는 뜻이다, 즉 가장 중요하다거나 가장 중요한 강조점임을 나타내려고 할 때 쓰인다.]
especially adv. 특히, 유달리, 유별나게, 각별히, 주로
• He is good at all subjects, especially at English. 그는 전과목을 잘 하지만 특히 영어를 잘한다
especially다른 것과 비교하여 그것보다도 훨씬 정도가 높고 우수함을 나타낸다.
specially 어떤 특별한 용도∙목적 때문에 「특히」라는 뜻이다.
particularly 여러 개의 같은 종류의 것 중에서 특정한 것을 골라서「특히」라고 특정화한다.